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The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL)
Readers are encouraged to familiarize themselves with the ETCSL body of literature comprising "a selection of nearly 400 literary compositions recorded on sources which come from ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) and date to the late third and early second millennia BCE." Parks certainly makes reference to this and in particular opens his Ádam Genisiš chapter being discussed here with an extensive quote from the section Enki and Ninmah.

Parks notes that this text clearly distinguishes Mamítu-Nammu, mother of Enki, from Ninmah, his mistress. Too many authors, he says, confuse these two.

The general topic is the use of the Siensišár -- artificial womb (see Decoder) -- normally to create "dignitaries", but here to be used to confect a sort of primitive human. Enki is going to have to modify or upgrade the Siensišár to make use of the "blood" of beings residing in the terrestrial Abzu.


The mutiny takes place in Edin. Enlil ("the lord idiot") barricades himself in his dwelling in Duranki (Sumerian name for the town of Nippur, city of the Great Šàtam Enlil. It has the meaning "Bond between heaven and earth".)

The Great Šàtam has tried several times to reach Enki via Kinsag (telepathy), of which he possesses partial mastery due to the Níama that he has received from Ninmah, but Enki has not responded.

Seeing that Enki is not going to command his Nungal to return to work, Nammu seems to become concerned that her Uga-Muš (People of the Serpent, the Amašutum) will be drafted. Therefore she prescribes that Enki produce a handiwork that will replace the Nungal. This is something of which he had long dreamed, but would not have undertaken except by the order of the greatest Amašutum geneticist, Mamítu-Nammu.

Ethical questions had long surged in Enki's spirit, and he had discussed these with Nammu. Who would risk incarnating in these bodies, ready to work?

Her response had sent chills down his spine. It is worth quoting verbatim from the book:


(Nammu) Each is free to incarnate where he wishes, it is the common code of beings in our universe. Sorrow and failure are an integral part of Zišàgál (incarnations) that evolve in the parts of the Galaxy where duality rules.

We know, you and I, that it is difficult to accept, especially you, my son, when you must carry on your shoulders the wishes of your Kuku (ancestors).

If you do not offer them a solution quickly, it is war that awaits us here and the fragile peace that Uraš (the Earth) enjoys will be destroyed for Limamu (millennia).

We, Nindigir (priestesses), have borne the brunt of discord throughout the course of our long history; we know where all that has led us. Do you think that the Kadištu (Life Designers) asked themselves the question of which type of Ba (soul) was going to incarnate in the body of the Imdugud? The model of the allies of the Source does not cease to concern me, even if at times I do not always totally incorporate it!...

Their following conversation dealt with the selection of the genetic material that would be used to clone these beings.

From an ideological perspective, it would seem out-of-bounds to contemplate employing Ušumgal or Anunna material, for fear of offending those groups. Nammu wished to exploit the genetic material of the various types of Ugubi (apes) that she had upgraded to Ukubi'im (Homo Neanderthalensis) under the noses of the Kingú and emissaries of the Source. She felt such tenderness for them that she doubtless wished to further develop this family. Enki well understood that, having studied them and rubbed elbows with them, as it were. Agarin, his female Ukubi'im, was in his heart. She had shown him how endearing these beings could be, and how they were animated by a remarkable conscience, no doubt sharper than that of the Anunna!

[Here, in his Note 92, Parks briefly reviews, giving references, the state of genetic science today with regard to puzzling genetic links between the various Homo types. Rather than contemplating a moment of deliberate external manipulation, researchers fall on simple ongoing relations of copulations between apes and hominids.]

Once Enki and Nammu had basically decided on using the genes of the Ukubi'im (Homo Neanderthalensis), Enki proposed using specifically genes of the Ukubi'im family that he had studied over a long period of time, and that he had stocked and brought with him there to the Abzu.

Nammu was astonished at the proposition (not made clear if she had known about the genes being there), but she accepted.

Let's again take the liberty of quoting verbatim a paragraph from the book. This material is of keen interest; we might as well keep it true to the original.


I fabricated a new type of Siensišár (artificial womb). A model that was going to permit us to generate mixed-bloods.

I began with Ama'argi apparatuses, the Uzumúa matrices that are composed of a large quantity of quartz.

I made a number of attempts and I was required to employ Zirzi (destroyers of life) to eliminate unfruitful products. This experience of having to destroy unsuccessful models is completely disagreeable to me. It reminds me of my creator and of the Alagni (clones) that he had created and suppressed before obtaining me.

I incinerated the body of each; it was necessary never to leave any trace of our work. I had to refine my attempts in order to avoid having to kill. I had blood on my hands and that did not please me at all! I had felled Abzu-Abba, I had killed on the Dukù to save my skin and there I am today in the act of suppressing living beings due to the fact that they are only drafts or specimens of a great line to come.

I have difficulty creating beings with restricted understanding. We have voluntarily chosen this model for its developed conscience. I cannot produce pure Ádam (animals), not like these stupid Kingú Ukubi-Ádam (Homo Erectus)!

Meanwhile, Enlil had convened a Divine Assembly at the Ubšu-ukkinna (Retreat) at Kharsag. Enki sent Sigpabnun (Isimmud); Anšár received him with great fracas.

Enlil had beseeched An to descend (from Mars) to preside over this extraordinary convocation. An was not in good humor at the moment when Sigpabnun arrived; he was spending much time with Ninurta trying to dislodge the Kingú and the Imdugud who had installed themselves on Itud (the moon). It was wasted effort and even suicidal; the royals and their children had possessed bases on the satellite of Uraš for Limamu (millennia). Moreover, An possessed limited numbers of soldiers, which did nothing for his ambitions.


Two Iti (months) have passed. Enki has gone to Duranki (Nippur) (where apparently Enlil has remained all this time, in his barricade) to try to do something about the situation and deliver the Great Šàtam. He found him understandably highly irritated and filled with wicked reproaches.

The two of them did not take the same road to return to Kharsag.

Reaching the mountain of Dukug at Kharsag, Enki found Dìm'mege at his side. Zehuti (Thoth) had left the Gigal and was in place to represent the ensemble of the Nungal. All high society was present. The Ušumgal in full, some Mušgir (dragons), and some Mìmínu ("greys") who had come down with An.

This was another laborious session as the Kuku knew so well how to organize.

While various important options were being offered to Enki's partisans, Enki's ultimate aim was to put an end to the diplomatic disorder and above all to release his Nungal, by means of the program that he was going to propose.


The discussions went like this:

Enlil demanded reparations for the affront that he had suffered.

The Ušumgal were strangely ill at ease and did not take up a position of support for their Šàtam.

Enki quickly calmed everyone's spirits and presented the plan that he and Nammu had prepared. That is, his proposal to create a substitute for the Nungal and an outline of his work with developing the new Siensišár (artificial womb) as described above.

Ninmah listened and never took her eyes off Enki. Enlil was very suspicious. He scanned in the assembly that it was not a good idea. But An and Ninmah were not of his advice and begged Enki to pursue his presentation.

Seeing that the situation was eluding him, Enlil grew beside himself, red with anger. It then appeared that An, with the use of Kinsag (telepathy), ordered him to be quiet. Because at that time he was brusquely calmed and seemingly took on the quality of the Mardukù, which is to say, Master of Laws.

An approved the idea but needed to know more about the genetic material to be used. Enki explained that he would be using Ukubi'im (Homo Neanderthalensis) mixed with Gina'abul. This troubled An, who thought that these specimens would have an affinity with the "distressing" Namlú'u of the Kadištu (Life Designers).

Enki could not honestly respond affirmatively, because the sources of the different types of Ukubi'im (genus Homo) were nebulous. Nammu and Dìm'mege had actually never taken him into their confidence on this. Likewise, he had not been able to learn anything on it from his crystal. However it did seem as though Nammu and her Ninti (priestesses of life) would indeed have augmented the Ukubi'im line of emissaries of the Source, while the Ama'argi had transformed the Ukubi-Ádam (genus Homo Erectus) without the knowledge of the royals.

Anšár, father of An, asked which genetic material of their family was Enki thinking of using. Enki said that the Ama'argi being workers and meticulous, their material would procure good elements.

And then, with the clap of hand, Enki introduced into the room the specimen that he had assembled. The audience was totally stupefied!

Dìm'mege accompanied him like a mother. She wore an ample semi-transparent drapery, tied across the chest, covering her body from breast to ankle. Sumptuous jewelry rustled over her vaporous drape. She was an incomparable beauty.

Enki instantly caught the pointed regard fixed by Ninmah on the daughter of Nammu. Her face darkened. She was undoubtedly struck to see that she and Nammu were no longer the only females to carry the Níama. Enki perceived a profound jealousy on Ninmah's part, accompanied by a sudden sense of vulnerability.

All the members of the Assembly stood to better observe the prodigy. The Ádab (servant) was dark-skinned like his African brothers. When he entered the Assembly, he bowed slightly and carried a troubled regard, doubtless because of the turmoil that surrounded him. Ninmah stood on pointed feet and asked in spirited voice if he was a freed Sag (slave).

[The Sumerian Sag carries strangely the following definitions: Human; slave; servant; first rank; head; present; donation... all in accord with the idea that the Sumerian "gods" had of humanity.]

Enki replied that he was a "Lùlù", a mixed-blood, a full-fledged asexual prototype, which rendered him very docile.

[Parks provides an extensive analysis of the "Lùlù" term and other related words in several ancient languages. See his Note 96.]


The "Lùlù" was made available to the scrutiny of the Ušumgal. Ninmah examined and palpated him with insistance. The process gave no regard to any sentiments or concerns that Enki may have had. He was troubled, but concealed it. A profound pain filled his right shoulder.

An then approached him and pressed on his arms with great force, to verify the being's strength. His verdict resonated throughout the room:

We need a handiwork without too much understanding, Enki. Your Ádab is robust; he can carry loads, but he appears to me too clever. He too much resembles these strange Ukubi'im (Homo Neanderthalensis) who criss-cross the vast Edin (plain)!

Something in his look does not suit me. I have the impression of seeing your mother, Nammu... I sense it with the Níama and that which I discern is not favorable. You should not be using the Ama'argi genes, but others more profane to our eyes. As you know, genetic factors contribute to the inter-individual distinction in the acquired aptitude.

Nudimmud (cloner), we are not going to praise this specimen. We need something more of the Ádam (animal). Your Alagní (clone) is too awake for our designs, his brain cavity is too voluminous. You must reduce it a little!

Conforming to the Decree 46 of the Mardukù, Enlil, Master of the Laws, and I myself, concede to you within your qualification of Master of the Uga'Muš (People of the Serpent) the right to complete your work with the Nindidir (Priestesses) of your choice. Let it be so!

The Assembly validated the word of An.

At all this, Enki was overcome by an extreme physical reaction and could barely remain standing. His creation, he felt, was perfect; he would not concede the least wish of An to reduce it. It needed now only to be multiplied.

Here, Ninmah stepped in with a helpful suggestion: use the other Ukubi, the Ukubi-Ádam (Homo Erectus) created by the Kingú. Being totally stupid, they would not be dangerous. But Enki countered that these were bellicose, aggressive, difficult to approach, while Nammu's Ukubi'im were sociable. And he pointed out Agarin, whom you will recall Ninmah had poisoned:


(Enki) One of them has sojourned with me at my sides. You have not appreciated her true value...



(Enlil) You have coupled with... with this thing. You have become like her. You have taken this to replace your slut of a gardener!!


(That was a reference to Sé'et!)

An fixed a look at Enki as if to demand that he not respond, but he was boiling internally. The Níama shot to his head. Filled with extreme anger, he forgot his pains and he slammed Enlil to the ground with the thought.

Enlil had just given himself away. Why would Enki have had to replace Sé'et with Agarin if the daughter of Nammu was not known by the Grand Šàtam to be dead?


(Enki) Your eloquence as an orator has just reached its limit, my son, you have just betrayed yourself, IT IS THE MOMENT TO PAY FOR YOUR CRIME...

An instant that he savored seemingly for an eternity. The Assembly rose and gathered around him but he did not understand what was happening. Someone slid to his side; the silhouette of Ninmah. He barely saw her horrified eyes, begging him to stop this folly:


(Ninmah) He is the father of my son, stop, BY THE SOURCE, STOP!!

Dìm'mege seized his arm brusquely. He had the impression of her, her eyes filled with tears; for an instant he saw Sé'et in her place begging him to stop.

He stopped; troubled, greatly frustrated, but with the sweet regard of Sé'et in his memory... something he had not perceived in how long a time; traits almost forgotten.

He looked at Dìm'mege, totally irritated. It was only Dìm'mege. His sister threw herself in his arms for mutual consolation.

The Assembly wished to decide how to handle this unexpected turn of events, but An acted as though nothing had happened:


(An) Very well, if this creature has been able to cohabit with the colony, she can do the same on the Dukug (holy mountain) and in Edin! Your choice is judicious Enki. Only we are going to call for you to rectify your prototype and render it less... engaging.


A highly important give-and-take negotiation followed, resulting in these agreed points:


  • Ninmah will take up the work of finishing the product, meaning reducing what had been "too well realized"!

  • The services of Mamítu-Nammu will be needed for the cloning. THIS ESSENTIALLY REHABILITATED NAMMU in the society! Credit had to be rendered for her many vital services in the past.


That second point required the assistance of Ninmah to convince An and the Great Šàtam.

Enlil, by the way, reseated himself, bearing a victorious expression. Not one to take embarrassment as a setback, he always knew how to play with equivocal situations.

Again we are going to quote a highly important passage, and we must specifically thank Parks for these. We are dealing here with our own genetic makeup, possibly... probably.

There was an important question: what genotype would replace the Ama'argi, who were far too accomplished for the taste of the Ušumgal?


Brief Description of Note 99 :
Parks analyzes information found on clay tablets from Babylonia, Aššur, and the Enuma Elish, finding the same ideas in all three concerning the flesh and blood of an unknown being designated as Wê. They are clearly referring to humanity. Many wordgames are traced; we cannot place the full analysis here. Only to say that much more information existed in ancient texts than we moderns usually give them credit for.

After a careful review of possibilities, Enlil comes up with this:


If we do not use the creatures of the Kingú, why not employ the genes of the Kingú? Not those of the Babbar (albinos) who are highly awakened individuals, and still less those of the reds who are too valiant, but rather those of the workers, the Kingú of common skin! Their genotype carries the mark of labor; it is a windfall for us. There will be no better opportunity to mark our supremacy over this overproud stock.

The Assembly marked the completion of the games and the debut of "the dawn of the age of reason," the formula of a new era proudly formulated by An, by savagely sacrificing a Kingú worker.

Enki and his party left the room amid thunderous applause. The incident with Enlil seemed to have been forgotten, but not in Enki's heart, nor in Enlil's. As the Great Šàtam passed by, he whispered in Enki's ear:


(Enlil) You have had your opportunity; it has escaped you once again. There will not be a third occasion.

Dìm'mege heard it, and with a big smile and a telepathic message to Enki, said that it was Enlil who was going to bitterly regret his errors.

Enki decreed a party be held to raise hearts and celebrate the coming nourishment of the Abzu. Afterward, Dìm'mege departed for the underground world with the prototype, headed for a solitary destiny. The order had been given to suppress him, but Enki had remanded him to the queen of Šàlim, the sovereign of the City of Eternity. He was the proprietor of this clone, and the destiny of all of his products belonged to him.

Several types of Ugubi and Ukubi lived in the Abzu and were under the sovereign authority of his sister Dìm'mege. This model was going to be able to take his place in Enki's kingdom, at least insofar as not remaining around Dìm'mege...

Ninmah joined him at the edge of the Dukug, where they observed the countryside in the declining light. The full moon rose above the rooftops of the city. A fresh wind rose from the mountains, but did not really refresh the atmosphere, as it was becoming warmer and warmer on Uraš.

The Edin (plain) was strangely calm. A multitude of lights from the cities danced in the slowly cooling evening.

The Mìmínu (greys) workers had occupied the buildings for some time. The silence below contrasted with the party and singing of the Anunna that resonated above.

The mother of the Anunna came and snuggled against Enki's shoulder...


(Ninmah) Ça va?

(Enki) Ça va.

She went on to say that An had been very conciliatory. Enki could have been thrown out of the Assembly and the colony, as had been Sé'et and his mother.


You make an odd family. Why did you act like that?

Well this was a surprising question. Ninmah seemed not to be dealing with Sé'et's disappearance. But Enki ignored the discrepancy, imagining perhaps that Ninmah had been careless with her words.

He replied, saying that he could no longer stand Enlil's double-entendres and attacks.

Going on to discuss the new beings, be they Ádam (animals) or new types of Ukubi'im (Homo Neanderthalensis), Ninmah said that they would serve not only to replace the Nungal, they would "fill their office for the entire colony".

She agreed that the Nungal had been worked too hard, and she would be glad to liberate them, and that if Nammu could be acquitted through all this, it would be perfect.

A bit of ironic and sarcastic banter ensued. Including this:


(Ninmah) Have you not noticed how Dìm'mege is blossoming now? Certainly she has become enamored of one of her domestics, or perhaps one of these stupid Ukubi (genus Homo), don't you think?


(Enki) No doubt...


(Ninmah) For how long in your Abzu have the people of Ádab (servants) carried the force of omnipotence? Isn't the Níama limited only to us?

The reader understands that Ninmah was probing to learn who Dìm'mege's lover was, since she must have acquired Níama in that way. Enki was required to improvise here as never before:


(Enki) You have no idea how surprising this Abzu can be... fortunately all my subjects are good and loyal Ádab (servants)...


Although Ninmah probably didn't believe a word, all this talk seemed to have aroused her; she grabbed Enki and pulled him to her abode, where they made furious love in a way that he found degrading, although he says he learned how adultery can at times revive the interior fire for some individuals.

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